Veja grátis o arquivo Aldeidos e cetonas (1) enviado para a disciplina de Química Orgânica II Categoria: Outros – Veja grátis o arquivo aldeidos e cetonas enviado para a disciplina de Química Orgânica Categoria: Aulas – Veja grátis o arquivo a aldeídos e cetonas QUI 4 enviado para a disciplina de Química Orgânica II Categoria: Aulas – 4 –

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The bisulfite compound of formaldehyde CH2O has special significance.

Aldeidos e cetonas (1)

Aldehyde carbonyl groups are more electron deficient because they have only one electron-donating group attached to the carbonyl carbon. Enviado por Karine flag Denunciar.

The mechanism of the reaction is not completely understood but a possible but probably not very accurate way of writing the mechanism is shown here: Acetal formation is reversible An excess of water in the presence of an acid catalyst will hydrolyze an acetal to. The hydrate is also called a gem-diol gem i. In parts of Africa the staple food is cassava.

An aldehyde or ketone in the presence of excess alcohol and an acid catalyst will form an acetal. The reaction scheme is easy enough to draw, but what is the mechanism?

Dissolving aldehydes or ketones in water causes formation of an equilibrium between the carbonyl compound and its hydrate.

Aldeídos e cetonas

The true structure of organolithiums cettonas Grignard reagents is rather more complicated! The details of this sort of chemistry will come in Chapter 14 when you will meet imines as intermediates. We shall discuss the structure of glucose later in this chapter, but for now, just accept that it stabilizes the cyanohydrin.

Mild acid facilitates departure of the hydroxyl group from the aminoalcohol intermediate without also protonating the nitrogen of the amine starting co mpound.

Acetal formation from ketones and simple alcohols is less favorable than formation from aldehydes. Similar glucosides are found in apple pips and the kernels inside the stones of fruit such as peaches and apricots. Carbon atoms that carry a negative charge, for example Me—, are known as carbanions.


But it can matter to medicinal chemists, who make compounds that need to be com- patible with biological systems.

aldeido Initiation can be accomplished by adding a small amount. Aldeidks excess of water in the presence of an acid catalyst will hydrolyze an acetal to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. In Chapter 5 you saw how triethylamine forms a complex with the Lewis acid BF3, and much the same happens when an ether meets a metal ion such as magnesium or lithium: Aldehydes and ketones react with primary amines and ammonia to yield imines They react with secondary amines to yield enamines.

But at ceonas stage we cetohas want you to appreciate that even aldeidks relatively simple chemistry in this chapter is useful in synthesis, in commerce, and in medicine. Enviado por Karine flag Denunciar. The table lists some of the most important commercially available organolithiums and Grignard reagents. Some people like eating these, but it is unwise to eat too many at one sitting!

This food contains substantial quantities of the glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin a glucoside is an acetal derived from glucose. Aldehydes and ketone react with HCN to form a cyanohydrin A catalytic amount of cyanide helps to speed the reaction. This does not usually matter to most chemists as we often want to carry out reactions in organic solvents rather than water.

The cassava is now safe to eat but it still contains some glucoside. The second reason that bisulfite compounds are useful is that they are soluble in water.

CAP-10-Aldehydes and Ketones I [Modo de Compatibilidade]

Acylic hemiacetals are generally not stable, however, cyclic five-and sixmembered ring hemiacetals are. Reaction of triphenylphosphine with a primary or secondary alkyl halide produces a phosphonium salt The phosphonium salt is deprotonated by a strong base to form the ylide. It turns out that they generally form complex aggregates with two, four, six, or more molecules bonded together, often with solvent molecules. There is also a change in oxidation state of the magnesium, from Mg 0 to Mg II.


Some diseases found in eastern Nigeria can be traced to long-term consumption of HCN. Aldehydes and ketones react with phosphorous ylides to produce alkenes An ylide is a neutral molecule with adjacent positive and negative charges.

CAPAldehydes and Ketones I [Modo de Compatibilidade] – aldeidos e cetonas

You may ask how this is possible since dap- sone has no aldehyde or ketone—just two amino cetonaa and a sulfone. The reason is that they react very rapidly and highly exothermically with water to produce 9.

The equilibrum favors a ketone over its hydrate because the tetrahedral ketone hydrate is sterically crowded. Formation of the acetal proceeds via the corresponding hemiacetal An acetal has two alkoxyl groups bonded to the same carbon. Each inserting reaction requires two atoms of lithium and generates one equivalent of lithium halide salt.

Some small that is, low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones are water-soluble—acetone is an exam- ple. Making organometallics How to make Grignard reagents Grignard reagents are made by reacting magnesium turnings with alkyl halides in ether solvents to form solutions of alkylmagnesium halide. The compound is commercially available and, together with the related zinc salt, is widely used in the textile industry as a reduc- ing agent.

Thioacetals can be converted to CH2 groups by hydrogenation using a catalyst such as Raney nickel.